In recent years, there have been calls to legalize abortion on socio-economic grounds, but these have been rejected by the courts. The argument for abortion for these reasons is that women who can choose when to have a child are better able to fully care for that child, and that cycles of poverty and inequality are weakened when children are born to parents who can adequately care for them. Some cite the link between falling crime rates and the availability of abortions, but so far none of these arguments have been successful. The third reason, in terms of mental health, is generally interpreted generously to create a de facto elective abortion service, and almost all abortions – 98% in 2019 and 2020 – are performed to protect women`s mental health.  Rape and incest are not a rational reason for abortion in Northern Ireland. The method of conception is considered irrelevant when it comes to protecting that child. A clear majority of abortions in the UK take place in less than 10 weeks of pregnancy. The figures and percentages in England and Wales, Scotland and the UK as a whole in 2020 were as follows. Information on pregnancy and abortion is not available in Northern Ireland for the same year. However, this is not the case.
In the United Kingdom, Wales, Scotland and England (and some islands), abortion has been legal since the Abortion Act 1967. This established the conditions under which a woman can receive a legal abortion and was considered a landmark law. The rights of women and children were clearly spelled out, which many saw as a successful balance between protecting life`s potential, the need for practical legislation that represents the reality of abortion, and the mother`s right to decide what happens in her own body. During this period, only a few offences of abortion and extermination of children were recorded in Northern Ireland – a possible effect of legal deterrence. Between 1998 and 2018, the Royal Ulster Constabulary and the Police Service of Northern Ireland recorded 17 cases of “illegal abortion” and three cases of “deliberate destruction of a viable unborn child”. In several years during this period, no such crime was recorded.  Even ordering drugs to induce abortion is illegal in Northern Ireland, with long prison sentences for anyone caught doing so. The law provides that the certifying physician may, for reasons C and D, take into account the actual or reasonably foreseeable environment of the pregnant woman. The amendments to the Abortion Act 1967 by section 37 of the Human Fertilization and Embryology Act 1990 came into force on 1 April 1991 and included a 24-week time limit for abortions on legal grounds C and D.
Legal bases A, B and E are unlimited in time. One in five women who have an abortion is married; Many others are in stable relationships. Abortion is not just a problem for single women. Forty-seven per cent of women who have abortions already have at least one child. Although abortion is a criminal offence, the use of abortion by the medical profession to protect maternal health has been neglected. As abortion became safer in the 20th century, calls for liberalization of abortion laws multiplied. The UK`s 1967 Abortion Act allowed abortions under prohibited conditions related to maternal and foetal health and had a profound impact on subsequent extensions of abortion laws in more than 40 countries between 1967 and 1982. A fundamental difference between the United States and the United Kingdom is that American women have the right to abort on demand until the fetus is viable. Despite this difference, there is little pressure to change the current laws in the UK, as women have no difficulty getting abortions. Thirdly, the abortion law gives doctors the right to refuse to authorize or perform conscious abortions on grounds of conscience, unless it is necessary to save the woman`s life or to prevent serious and permanent damage to her health.
This means that women do not have the right to ask a doctor to perform an abortion for them. The first references to abortion in English law appeared in the 13th century. The law followed the Church`s teaching that abortion was acceptable to the point of “acceleration,” which was believed to be when the soul entered the fetus. The legal situation has remained the same for centuries. The vast majority of abortions (95% in England and Wales in 2004) have been certified on legal grounds of harm to the mental or physical health of the pregnant woman.  For example, if two physicians believe in good faith that an abortion poses a lower risk to a woman`s physical or mental health than a pregnancy to the end, the abortion becomes legal – even if it would have been safer to carry the pregnancy to term (e.g., if the abortion resulted in death or injury). If a woman indicates that she does not have the means to continue the pregnancy, the doctor is not obliged to check whether she really lacks financial resources. The 1967 abortion law legalized abortion as long as certain criteria were met. For this reason, we are required by law to ask you during your assessment why you are considering an abortion. If you live in Northern Ireland or elsewhere where abortion treatment may be restricted, you can legally travel for treatment. We provide safe abortion treatment through our clinics across England.
Contact us if you would like more information or if you would like to make an appointment. By 2009, the number of abortions had risen to 189,100. Of these, 2,085 are due to the fact that doctors have decided that there is a significant risk that the child will have physical or mental abnormalities such at birth that he or she will be severely disabled.  Abortion criminality in England and Wales was reinforced in 1929 when the Infant Life (Preservation) Act was passed. The law criminalized the deliberate destruction of a child who “may be born alive.” This was to fill a loophole identified by Lord Darling that allowed infants to be killed during birth, which would mean that the perpetrator could not be prosecuted for either abortion or murder.  The law contained the presumption that all children in utero over 28 weeks of pregnancy can be born alive. If a child`s life ended in utero before that pregnancy, evidence was presented and considered to determine whether or not the child could be born alive. In 1987, the Court of Appeal rejected an injunction to prevent an abortion, ruling that a fetus between 18 and 21 weeks of age could not be born alive.
  In May 2007, a woman from Levenshulme, Manchester, who had an illegal late-term abortion at 7+1⁄2 months in early 2006, was convicted of child destruction under the Child Life Conservation Act 1929.  In the 2017 UK general election, the Labour manifesto, led by MP Jeremy Corbyn, stated: “Labour will continue to guarantee a woman`s right to safe and legal abortion – and we will work with the Assembly to extend this right to women in Northern Ireland.  The election led to a trust and supply agreement between the Conservative Party and the DUP. The Conservative government pledged in June 2017 to offer free abortion services to women from Northern Ireland to England under pressure from Conservative MPs.  Labour`s commitment was implemented through amendments by private members to the Northern Ireland Executive Formation Act 2019, which repealed the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 (sections 58 and 59) in October 2019. The political context has also been altered by court challenges, the repeal of the Eighth Amendment in the Republic in 2018 (backed by Sinn Féin) and the SDLP`s decision to consider abortion a matter of conscience. In Northern Ireland, abortion was decriminalised in 2019 and the new legal framework came into force in 2020. Abortion is now legal unconditionally in Northern Ireland for up to 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, the law is essentially the same as in the rest of the UK. Nevertheless, the morale of pro-choice activists is now high. “I started participating in abortion campaigns in 1982,” says Furedi, “and at that time only half of abortions were paid for by the NHS.
Our big campaign over the next decade has been for 75% of abortions to be paid for by the NHS. We never thought we would make it. And now we are at 98%. It has been incorporated. I don`t think people will ever think it`s good. But they think it`s fair. Unlike obstetrics, if a woman wants to continue a pregnancy, abortions are not automatically possible via the NHS.